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  • Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health (2015-05-31)
Florentina Villanueva, Araceli Tapia, Mariano Amo-Salas, Alberto Notario, Beatriz Cabañas, Ernesto Martínez
ABSTRACT

Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Butyl alcohol, natural, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, 98%
radiello Anesthetic Gases and Vapor Sampler
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Xylene, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dodecane, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbon disulfide solution, 5 M in THF
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, anhydrous, 99.8%
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
Supelco
Toluene, HPLC grade, 99.8%
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (CS2 Desorption), matrix SS net (100 mesh, 5.8 mm diam.), activated with activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, HPLC Plus, for HPLC, GC, and residue analysis, ≥95%
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
Supelco
Hexane, suitable for HPLC, ≥95%
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Anaesthetic Gases/Vapors, matrix SS net with mix of mol sieve and activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, anhydrous, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Xylene, anhydrous, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentane, anhydrous, ≥99%
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Ammonia (NH3), matrix microporous PE impregnated with phosphoric acid, pk of 20
Sigma-Aldrich
Octane, electronic grade, ≥99.999% metals basis, ≥99% (CP)
radiello On-Field Thermometer, Reader, pk of 1
radiello Diffusive Bodies, yellow, configured for reduced sampling rates, pk of 20
Supelco
radiello Aldehyde Calibration Standard, 50 μg/mL each component in acetonitrile, pkg of 10 mL
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)