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  • Generation of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells in vivo following administration of diabetes-reversing tolerogenic microspheres does not require provision of antigen in the formulation.

Generation of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells in vivo following administration of diabetes-reversing tolerogenic microspheres does not require provision of antigen in the formulation.

Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.) (2015-03-17)
Carl Engman, Yi Wen, Wilson S Meng, Rita Bottino, Massimo Trucco, Nick Giannoukakis
ABSTRACT

We have developed novel antisense oligonucleotide-formulated microspheres that can reverse hyperglycemia in newly-onset diabetic mice. Dendritic cells taking up the microspheres adopt a restrained co-stimulation ability and migrate to the pancreatic lymph nodes when injected into an abdominal region that is drained by those lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the absolute numbers of antigen-specific Foxp3+ T regulatory cells are increased only in the lymph nodes draining the site of administration and that these T-cells proliferate independently of antigen supply in the microspheres. Taken together, our data add to the emerging model where antigen supply may not be a requirement in "vaccines" for autoimmune disease, but the site of administration - subserved by lymph nodes draining the target organ - is in fact critical to foster the generation of antigen-specific regulatory cells. The implications of these observations on "vaccine" design for autoimmunity are discussed and summarized.

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