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The metabolic syndrome in a memory clinic population: relation with clinical profile and prognosis.

Journal of the neurological sciences (2015-03-10)
Lieza G Exalto, Wiesje M van der Flier, Caroline J M van Boheemen, L Jaap Kappelle, Hugo Vrenken, Charlotte Teunissen, Ted Koene, Phillip Scheltens, Geert Jan Biessels
ABSTRACT

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. It is unclear however, if the presence of the MetS is associated with a particular clinical profile or a different prognosis in patients with cognitive complaints or early dementia. To compare 1) the clinical profile and 2) the prognosis of patients attending a memory clinic according to the presence or absence of MetS. Longitudinal cohort. Memory clinic. We included and followed 86 consecutive patients (average age of 66.7 (SD 9.7)) from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort with an MMSE>22. Clinical profile (neuropsychological examination, brain MRI, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, clinical diagnosis) on an initial standardized diagnostic assessment was compared according to MetS status. Progression to dementia was assessed in initially nondemented patients (subjective complaints n=40, mild cognitive impairment n=24, follow-up available in 59). 35 (41%) patients met the MetS criteria. Demographics were similar between patients with or without the MetS. At baseline, diagnosis, cognitive performance, severity of degenerative or vascular abnormalities on MRI, and CSF amyloid and tau levels did not differ between the groups (all p>0.05). Among nondemented patients, however, MetS was associated with worse performance on executive function, attention & speed and visuoconstructive ability (z-scores, p<0.05). During a mean follow-up of 3.4years a similar proportion of patients with (4; 17%) and without (6; 17%) the MetS progressed to dementia (p=0.45). Among nondemented patients presenting at a memory clinic MetS was associated with slightly worse cognitive performance (worse on tasks assessing executive functions, visuo-constructive ability, attention & speed), but conversion rate to dementia was not increased.

MATERIALS
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, 0.02% in DPBS (0.5 mM), sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, anhydrous, crystalline, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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