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The roles of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy in aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor-induced podocyte injury.

Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology (2015-09-29)
Yanggang Yuan, Xueqiang Xu, Chuanyan Zhao, Min Zhao, Hui Wang, Bo Zhang, Ningning Wang, Huijuan Mao, Aihua Zhang, Changying Xing
ABSTRACT

Podocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Recent studies indicate that aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a major contributor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Aldosterone/MR induces glomerular podocyte injury, causing the disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria. The present study investigated the mechanisms by which aldosterone/MR mediated podocyte injury, focusing on the involvement of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy. We observed that aldosterone/MR induced ER stress and podocyte injury both in vivo and in vitro. Blockade of ER stress significantly reduced aldosterone/MR-induced podocyte injury. In addition, we found that ER stress-induced podocyte injury was mediated by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (Chop). Interestingly, autophagy was also enhanced by aldosterone/MR. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased apoptosis. Inhibition of ER stress significantly reduced aldosterone/MR-induced autophagy. In addition, the activation of ER stress increased the formation of autophagy, which protected podocytes from apoptosis. Moreover, we observed that the addition of ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cystein (NAC), blocked both ER stress and autophagy by aldosterone/MR. Collectively, these results suggest that oxidant stress-mediated aldosterone/MR-induced podocyte injury via activating ER stress, which then triggers both Chop-dependent apoptosis and autophagy to cope with the injury. These findings may guide us to therapeutic strategies for glomerular diseases.

MATERIALS
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