Inadequate colostrum supply results in insufficient intake of macronutrients and bioactive factors, thereby impairing gastrointestinal development and the maturation of glucose metabolism in neonatal calves. The flavonoid quercetin has been shown to have health-promoting properties, including effects in diabetic animals. However, quercetin interacts with intestinal glucose absorption and might therefore exert negative effects in neonates. We evaluated the interaction between neonatal diet and quercetin feeding on splanchnic glucose metabolism in neonatal calves. Calves (n = 28) were assigned to 4 groups and fed either colostrum or a milk-based formula on days 1 and 2 and supplemented daily with 148 μmol quercetin aglycone/kg body weight [colostrum with quercetin (CQ+)/formula with quercetin (FQ+)] or without this substance [colostrum without quercetin (CQ-)/formula with quercetin (FQ-)] from days 2-8. From day 3 onward, all calves received milk replacer. A xylose absorption test was performed on day 3, and on day 7, blood samples were collected to study glucose first-pass uptake after [(13)C6]-glucose feeding and intravenous [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose bolus injection. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured by taking additional blood samples. A biopsy specimen of the liver was harvested on day 8 to measure the mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes. Higher postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, urea, adrenaline, noradrenaline, insulin, and glucagon on day 7 in colostrum-fed calves indicate that metabolic processes were stimulated. Postabsorptive xylose and glucose plasma concentrations each increased by an additional 26%, and splanchnic glucose turnover decreased by 35% in colostrum-fed calves, suggesting improved glucose absorption and lower splanchnic glucose utilization in colostrum-fed calves. Quercetin supplementation resulted in higher noradrenaline concentrations and enhanced peak absorption and oxidation of [(13)C6]-glucose by 10%. Liver mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA abundance was reduced by 34% in colostrum-deprived calves. Feeding colostrum during the first 2 d of life is crucial for maturation of splanchnic glucose metabolism in calves. Supplementing quercetin improves gastrointestinal absorption capacity, particularly in colostrum-deprived calves.