Aim to design an effective breviscapine nanoscale drug delivery system to realize the improvement of its oral bioavailability. Based on the investigations of the stabilities in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), permeation and efflux across the cell membrane, the breviscapine nanoemulsion (NE) was formulated and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The globule size and polydispersity index of the NE was 45.6 nm and 0.105, and the efficient encapsulation was 95.2%. In vitro, the drug release from NEs in pH 6.8 PBS fit to the first-order kinetics. The Caco-2 cell transport experiments showed that the breviscapine NE facilitated the improvement of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) from the apical side to basilar side compared with the free drug. In vivo, the relative bioavailability of breviscapine NE reached to 249.7%. All the studies implicated that the NE carrier contributed to the enhancement of the oral absorption of breviscapine due to the improved stability and permeation in the GIT. The nanoemulsions technology is better for the poor permeable and unstable active agents in GIT as well as helps the industrial scale process.