In this study, microcosm and pilot-scale experiments were performed to investigate the capability and effectiveness of Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU) on the bioremediation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD)-contaminated soils. The objectives were to evaluate the (1) characteristics of P. mendocina NSYSU, (2) feasibility of enhancing OCDD biodegradation with the addition of P. mendocina NSYSU and lecithin, and (3) variation in microbial diversity and genes responsible for the dechlorination of OCDD. P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited when salinity was higher than 7%, and it could biodegrade OCDD under reductive dechlorinating conditions. Lecithin could serve as the solubilization agent causing the enhanced solubilization and dechlorination of OCDD. Up to 71 and 62% of OCDD could be degraded after 65 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of lecithin, respectively. Decreased OCDD concentrations caused significant increase in microbial diversity. Results from the pilot-scale study show that up to 75% of OCDD could be degraded after a 2.5-month operational period with lecithin addition. Results from the gene analyses show that two genes encoding the extradiol/intradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase and five genes encoding the hydrolase in P. mendocina NSYSU were identified and played important roles in OCDD degradation.