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Ex vivo and in vivo studies of CME-1, a novel polysaccharide purified from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis that inhibits human platelet activation by activating adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP.

Thrombosis research (2014-10-09)
Wan-Jung Lu, Nen-Chung Chang, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Jiun-Cheng Liao, Mei-Jiun Lin, Shwu-Huey Wang, Duen-Suey Chou, Philip Aloysius Thomas, Joen-Rong Sheu
ABSTRACT

CME-1, a novel water-soluble polysaccharide, was purified from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, and its chemical structure was characterized to contain mannose and galactose in a ratio of 4:6 (27.6 kDa). CME-1 was originally observed to exert a potent inhibitory effect on tumor migration and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, no data are available concerning the effects of CME-1 on platelet activation. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the ex vivo and in vivo antithrombotic effects of CME-1 and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. The aggregometry, immunoblotting, flow cytometric analysis and platelet functional analysis were used in this study. CME-1 (2.3-7.6 μM) exhibited highly potent activity in inhibiting human platelet aggregation when stimulated by collagen, thrombin, and arachidonic acid but not by U46619. CME-1 inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. However, CME-1 interrupted neither FITC-triflavin nor FITC-collagen binding to platelets. CME-1 markedly increased cyclic AMP levels, but not cyclic GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the CME-1-mediated effects on platelet aggregation and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), Akt, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and TxB2 formation. CME-1 substantially prolonged the closure time of whole blood and the occlusion time of platelet plug formation. This study demonstrates for the first time that CME-1 exhibits highly potent antiplatelet activity that may initially activate adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP and, subsequently, inhibit intracellular signals (such as Akt and MAPKs), ultimately inhibiting platelet activation. This novel role of CME-1 indicates that CME-1 exhibits high potential for application in treating and preventing CVDs.

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