The aim of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory activity of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide in vitro. This compound was used for the synthesis of a series of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid semicarbazides and thiosemicarbazides with documented immunotropic activity. The performed measurements assessed the cytotoxic effect of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide on the murine macrophages (cell line J774E.1) and lymphoblasts (cell line D10.G4.1), the influence of this compound on the proliferation of murine lymphocytes isolated from peripheral lymphatic organs and murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with mitogens (concanavalin A(ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohemagglutinin A (PHA)). Moreover, the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β by the murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS from Escherichia coli was assessed. It was found that 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide displayed no cytotoxic effects in the murine J774E.1 and D10.G4.1 cell lines in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-200 μg/ml). Furthermore, the compound stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when used alone and in combination with mitogens (ConA and PHA). This effect was stronger in the nonstimulated cells, and it followed a dose-response relationship. The same phenomenon was observed for the proliferation of the murine peritoneal macrophages. The investigated hydrazide, at the highest used concentration of 150 μg/ml, increased the LPS-induced production of IL-1β and did not affect the level of TNF-α. These results confirmed the immunomodulatory properties of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide and indicated that this compound could be useful in further research aimed at finding novel functional drugs.