MilliporeSigma
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Urinary excretion pattern of exosomal aquaporin-2 in rats that received gentamicin.

Urinary excretion pattern of exosomal aquaporin-2 in rats that received gentamicin.

American journal of physiology. Renal physiology (2014-10-24)
Ahmed Abdeen, Hiroko Sonoda, Ragab El-Shawarby, Saki Takahashi, Masahiro Ikeda
ABSTRACT

Urinary exosomes are nano-sized vesicles secreted into urine from all types of renal epithelial cells and are known to contain possible biomarker proteins for renal diseases. Gentamicin has been reported to decrease the level of renal aquaporin (AQP)2, which is known to be mainly expressed in renal collecting ducts and excreted into the urine via exosomes. In the present study, we investigated whether urinary exosomal AQP2 could serve as a potential biomarker for gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, especially collecting duct cell dysfunction. Gentamicin was given to rats intraperitoneally once every day starting on day 0. Gentamicin significantly increased the plasma creatinine concentration from day 5 and beyond. Also, gentamicin induced polyuria and a defective urine concentration mechanism on day 7, suggesting gentamicin-induced collecting duct cell dysfunction. Immunoblot analysis showed that gentamicin significantly increased urinary exosomal AQP2 excretion on day 1 but decreased it on day 7 compared with the control group. Similarly, increased excretion of exosomal tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein, frequently used as an exosome marker protein, was observed on day 1. However, gentamicin did not significantly affect the urinary excretion of exosomal tumor susceptibility gene 101 on day 7. Gentamicin slightly decreased renal AQP2 expression on day 2 and markedly decreased it on day 8. These data strongly suggest that the use of urinary exosomal AQP2 as a biomarker may allow detection of gentamicin-induced collecting duct cell dysfunction. Furthermore, urinary exosomal AQP2 might also be useful for the early detection of gentamicin-induced renal injury in addition to collecting duct injury.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains potassium stannate as inhibitor, 30-32 wt. % in water, semiconductor grade, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~1 M in H2O
Millipore
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 3%, suitable for microbiology
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 34.5-36.5%
Supelco
Hydrogen peroxide solution, ≥30%, for trace analysis
Sigma-Aldrich
Bicinchoninic acid disodium salt hydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 30 % (w/w) in H2O, contains stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains inhibitor, 30 wt. % in H2O, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains inhibitor, 30 wt. % in H2O, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen Peroxide Solution, 30% (w/w), puriss. p.a., reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains ~200 ppm acetanilide as stabilizer, 3 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, purum p.a., ≥35% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 50 wt. % in H2O, stabilized
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains inhibitor, 35 wt. % in H2O
Trolamine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
DL-Dithiothreitol solution, 1 M in H2O
Supelco
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 30 % (w/w), for ultratrace analysis
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, Grade I, suitable for plant cell culture
Supelco
Sucrose, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Triethanolamine, reagent grade, 98%
USP
Sucrose, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Sucrose, analytical standard, for enzymatic assay kit SCA20
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, Grade II, suitable for plant cell culture