The cytokine secretion of primary cells of human macrophages during the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (with an average primary size of 100-120 nm) is investigated down to concentration levels suggested to be relevant for in vivo conditions. We find that high TiO2 concentrations induce the cytokines Interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion, while at low concentrations only IL-6 secretion is observed. To obtain further evidence on in vivo conditions we investigated the development and structure of the protein corona of the nanoparticles. We demonstrated that the surface of TiO2 particles attract preferably secondary modified proteins which then induce cytokine secretion of macrophages. Our results indicate that concentration of corona covered TiO2 particles below 1 μg/ml induce IL-6 secretion which is reported to be responsible for the development of autoimmune diseases as well as for the secretion of acute phase proteins. This study investigates the effects of protein corona covered titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human macrophages, concluding that concentration of such particles below 1 μg/ml induces IL-6 secretion, which may be responsible for the development of autoimmune diseases as well as for the secretion of acute phase proteins. This finding has important implications on future applications of such nanoparticles.