Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a nuclear protein that has been recently identified as a novel inflammatory mediator in hemorrhagic shock and sepsis. We hypothesized that CIRP acts as a potent inflammatory mediator in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), and thus blocking CIRP protects against I/R-induced liver injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 70% hepatic ischemia by microvascular clamping of the hilum of the left and median liver lobes for 60 min, followed by reperfusion. Anti-CIRP antibody (1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (normal saline) in 0.2 mL was injected via the internal jugular vein at the beginning of the reperfusion. Blood and liver tissues were collected 24 h after I/R for various measurements, and a 10-day survival study was performed. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein released into the circulation was significantly increased 24 h after hepatic I/R. Anti-CIRP antibody treatment markedly reduced hepatocellular damage markers and significantly improved the liver microarchitecture. Anti-CIRP also reduced the systemic and local inflammation demonstrated by attenuation in both serum and hepatic levels of interleukin 6. The expression of neutrophil-attracting chemokine as well as liver neutrophil infiltration was reduced by anti-CIRP treatment. Anti-CIRP also dramatically decreased the amount of apoptosis and nitrosative stress, evidenced by decrease in TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) staining and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 levels, respectively. Finally, the 10-day survival rate was increased from 37.5% in the vehicle group to 75% in the anti-CIRP treatment group. Thus, targeting CIRP offers potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of hepatic I/R injury.