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  • PI3K/AKT pathway mediates induction of IL-1RA by TSH in fibrocytes: modulation by PTEN.

PI3K/AKT pathway mediates induction of IL-1RA by TSH in fibrocytes: modulation by PTEN.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (2014-05-21)
Bin Li, Terry J Smith
ABSTRACT

TSH provokes expression of inflammatory genes in CD34(+) fibrocytes. These cells appear to infiltrate the orbit in Graves' disease (GD), where they putatively become the CD34(+) orbital fibroblast subset (GD-OF). This may have importance in solving the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. The IL-1 family is targeted by TSH in fibrocytes and OFs by inducing secreted IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and intracellular IL-1RA in a cell-specific pattern. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediates several TSH actions in thyroid. This pathway is modulated by phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Vanishingly little is known currently about TSHR signaling to IL-1RA expression in nonthyroidal cells. Furthermore, factors modulating TSH action in these cells are largely unexplored. To characterize intermediate signaling between TSHR and IL-1RA in fibrocytes and GD-OFs and to begin to identify the proximate regulators of TSHR signaling in nonepithelial, extrathyroidal cells as a strategy for developing therapies for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Fibrocytes and GD-OFs were collected and analyzed from healthy individuals and those with GD in an academic clinical practice. Real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, cell transfections, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. TSH induces IL-1RA in fibrocytes and GD-OFs by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. Interrupting either PI3K or AKT with small molecule inhibitors or by knocking down their expression with targeting small interfering RNA attenuates the actions of TSH. OFs exhibit greater basal PTEN activity and lower constitutive AKT phosphorylation than do fibrocytes. Patterns of PTEN induction diverge in the two cell types. The current findings identify the PI3K/AKT pathway as critical to the induction by TSH of IL-1RA in fibrocytes and GD-OFs. Furthermore, PTEN modulates the amplitude of the induction. In GD-OFs, relatively high basal PTEN levels prevent secreted IL-1RA expression or release. Knocking down PTEN allows GD-OFs to exhibit a pattern of IL-1RA expression resembling fibrocytes.

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