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The effects of CAMPATH-1H on cell viability do not correlate to the CD52 density on the cell surface.

PloS one (2014-07-23)
Fuiyee Lee, Martha Luevano, Paul Veys, Kwee Yong, Alejandro Madrigal, Bronwen E Shaw, Aurore Saudemont
ABSTRACT

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the main complications after hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CAMPATH-1H is used in the pre-transplant conditioning regimen to effectively reduce GvHD by targeting CD52 antigens on T cells resulting in their depletion. Information regarding CD52 expression and the effects of CAMPATH-1H on immune cells is scant and limited to peripheral blood (PB) T and B cells. To date, the effects of CAMPATH-1H on cord blood (CB) cells has not been studied. Here we aimed to analyze CD52 expression and the effects of CAMPATH-1H on fresh or frozen, resting or activated, PB mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CB mononuclear cells (CBMC). In resting state, CD52 expression was higher in CB than PB T cell subsets (653.66 ± 26.68 vs 453.32 ± 19.2) and B cells (622.2±20.65 vs 612.0 ± 9.101) except for natural killer (NK) cells where CD52 levels were higher in PB (421.0 ± 9.857) than CB (334.3 ± 9.559). In contrast, CD52 levels were comparable across all cell types after activation. CAMPATH-1H depleted resting cells more effectively than activated cells with approximately 80-95% of apoptosis observed with low levels of necrosis. There was no direct correlation between cell surface CD52 density and depleting effects of CAMPATH-1H. In addition, no difference in cell viability was noted when different concentrations of CAMPATH-1H were used. CD52 was not expressed on HSC but began to be expressed as the cells differentiate, implying that CAMPATH-1H could potentially affect HSC differentiation and proliferation. Our study provides insightful information, which contributes to the better understanding in the use of CAMPATH-1H as part of the conditioning regime in HSCT.

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