Dictamnus angustifolius (Rutaceae) has been used as an alternative for folk medicine, Dictamnus dasycarpus in the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis, and skin diseases in Xinjiang Province of China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) from Dictamnus angustifolius, correlated with their chemical composition and evaluate their cytotoxicity. The EO were extracted by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of EO was identified by GC-MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five microorganisms by the agar disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing DPPH and FRAP assays. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated in the mammalian cells lines A549, MCF7, B16 and LoVo using the MTT method to assess cell viability. 52 compounds representing the 97.2% of the total oil were identified by GC/MS. The major constituents of the oil were tetramethylenecyclobutane (42.07%) and fraxinellone (19.06%). The antimicrobial activity showed that the EO possess significant inhibition in Monilia albican ATCC 10231 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. The antioxidant activity suggested that the EO possess significant reducing power. The cytotoxic activity of the EO in MCF7 and LoVo cells was significant stronger than in the other cell lines. This study is the first characterization of the chemical composition and biological activities of EO from Dictamnus angustifolius. All experimental data indicate that the EO have not only remarkable antioxidant properties but also potential antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic activities.