Viruses interact with and regulate many host metabolic pathways in order to advance the viral life cycle and counteract intrinsic and extrinsic antiviral responses. The human adenovirus (Ad) early protein E4-ORF3 forms a unique scaffold throughout the nuclei of infected cells and inhibits multiple antiviral defenses, including a DNA damage response (DDR) and an interferon response. We previously reported that the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein induces sumoylation of Mre11 and Nbs1, which are essential for the DDR, and their relocalization into E4-ORF3-induced nuclear inclusions is required for this modification to occur. In this study, we sought to analyze a global change in ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifications, with particular focus on SUMO3, by the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein and to identify new substrates with these modifications. By a comparative proteome-wide approach utilizing immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry, we found that Ubl modifications of 166 statistically significant lysine sites in 51 proteins are affected by E4-ORF3, and the proteome of modifications spans a diverse range of cellular functions. Ubl modifications of 92% of these identified sites were increased by E4-ORF3. We further analyzed SUMO3 conjugation of several identified proteins. Our findings demonstrated a role for the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein as a regulator of Ubl modifications and revealed new SUMO3 substrates induced by E4-ORF3. The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein induces dynamic structural changes in the nuclei of infected cells and counteracts host antiviral responses. One of the mechanisms that accounts for this process is the relocalization and sequestration of cellular proteins into an E4-ORF3 nuclear scaffold, but little is known about how this small viral protein affects diverse cellular responses. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the global pattern of ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifications, with particular focus on SUMO3, altered by E4-ORF3 expression. The results suggest a role for the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein as a regulator of Ubl modifications and reveal new SUMO3 substrates targeted by E4-ORF3. Our findings propose Ubl modifications as a new mechanism by which E4-ORF3 may modulate cellular protein functions in addition to subnuclear relocalization.