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Hemozoin is a potent adjuvant for hemagglutinin split vaccine without pyrogenicity in ferrets.

Vaccine (2014-04-12)
Motoyasu Onishi, Mitsutaka Kitano, Keiichi Taniguchi, Tomoyuki Homma, Masanori Kobayashi, Akihiko Sato, Cevayir Coban, Ken J Ishii
ABSTRACT

Synthetic hemozoin (sHZ, also known as β-hematin) from monomeric heme is a particle adjuvant which activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages, and enhances humoral immune responses to several antigens, including ovalbumin, human serum albumin, and serine repeat antigen 36 of Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvanticity and pyrogenicity of sHZ as an adjuvant for seasonal trivalent hemagglutinin split vaccine (SV) for humans using the experimental ferret model. Ferrets were twice immunized with trivalent SV, SV with sHZ (SV/sHZ) or Fluad, composed of trivalent SV with MF59. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers against three viral hemagglutinin (HA) antigens were measured at every week after the immunization. The pyrogenicity of SV/sHZ was examined by monitoring the body temperature of the immunized ferrets. To evaluate the protective efficacy of SV/sHZ, the immunized ferrets were challenged with influenza virus B infection, followed by measurement of viral titers in the nasal cavity and body temperature. sHZ enhanced HI titers against three viral HA antigens in a dose-dependent manner, to an extent comparable to that of Fluad. The highest dose of sHZ (800 μg) immunized with SV conferred sterile protection against infection with heterologous Influenza B virus, without causing any pyrogenic reaction such as high fever. In the present study, sHZ enhanced the protective efficacy of SV against influenza infection without inducing pyrogenic reaction, suggesting sHZ to be a promising adjuvant candidate for human SV.

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