Hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen is controlled by stromal cells. Inflammation promotes myelopoiesis and simultaneously suppresses B lymphopoiesis. However, the role of the reciprocal regulation of myelopoiesis and B lymphopoiesis by stromal cells during inflammation is not fully understood. We investigated inflammation-induced alteration of hematopoietic regulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. C57BL/6 female mice were intravenously injected with a single, 5-µg dose of LPS, which induced a rapid decrease in the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage; CFU-GM) and B cell progenitors (CFU-preB) in BM. The CFU-GM count rapidly recovered, whereas the recovery of CFU-preB was delayed. LPS induced a marked increase in the number of CFU-GM but not in the number of CFU-preB in spleen. After LPS treatment, gene expression levels of positive regulators of myelopoiesis such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in BM and spleen were markedly upregulated whereas levels of positive regulators for B lymphopoiesis such as stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, stem cell factor (SCF), and IL-7 remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the negative regulator of B lymphopoiesis tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was markedly up-regulated. The number of CFU-GM in S-phase in BM increased after LPS treatment, whereas the number of CFU-preB in S-phase decreased. These results suggest that LPS-activated stromal cells induce positive-dominant regulation of myelopoiesis and negative-dominant regulation of B lymphopoiesis, which facilitates emergency myelopoiesis during inflammation by suppressing B lymphopoiesis, thereby contributing to the host defense against infection.