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Thyroid hormone attenuates vascular calcification induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine in rats.

Calcified tissue international (2014-11-25)
Jing Zhang, Jin-Rui Chang, Xiao-Hui Duan, Yan-Rong Yu, Bao-Hong Zhang
ABSTRACT

Thyroid hormones (THs) including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) play critical roles in bone remodeling. However, the role and mechanism of THs in vascular calcification (VC) have been unclear. To explore the pathophysiological roles of T3 on VC, we investigated the changes in plasma and aortas of THs concentrations and the effect of T3 on rat VC induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN). VDN-treated rat showed decreased plasma T3 content, increased vascular calcium deposition, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Administration of T3 (0.2 mg/kg body weight IP) for 10 days greatly reduced vascular calcium deposition and ALP activity in calcified rat aortas when compared with controls. Concurrently, the loss of smooth muscle lineage markers α-actin and SM22a was restored, and the increased bone-associated molecules, such as runt-related transcription factor2 (Runx2), Osterix, and osteopontin (OPN) levels in calcified aorta, were reduced by administration of T3. The suppression of klotho in calcified rat aorta was restored by T3. Methimazole (400 mg/L) blocked the beneficial effect of T3 on VC. These results suggested that T3 can inhibit VC development.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Vitamin D3 solution, 100 μg/mL in ethanol, 97% (CP)
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholecalciferol, ≥98% (HPLC)
Supelco
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Vitamin D3 solution, 1 mg/mL in ethanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Cholecalciferol (D3), analytical standard
Supelco
Methimazole, analytical standard
USP
Cholecalciferol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Cholecalciferol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Cholecalciferol for system suitability, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholecalciferol, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Mercapto-1-methylimidazole, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholecalciferol, analytical standard
Supelco
Methimazole, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Thiamazole, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Methimazole, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard