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A novel surface-confined glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction/anion-exchange mixed-mode chromatography.

Journal of chromatography. A (2014-08-19)
Lizhen Qiao, Shuangyuan Wang, Hua Li, Yuanhong Shan, Abo Dou, Xianzhe Shi, Guowang Xu
ABSTRACT

Glucaminium-based ionic liquids are a new class of recently developed ionic liquids and prepared by functionalizing the amine group of N-methyl-d-glucamine, which renders them good hydrophilicity due to the presence of the glucose structure and charged quaternary ammonium group. In the present study, a glucaminium-based ionic liquid N,N-diallyl-N-methyl-d-glucaminium bromide was synthesized and subsequently bonded to the surface of 3-mercaptopropyl modified silica materials through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained stationary phase was characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy, and then packed as a HPLC column. A mixture of five nucleosides was used to characterize the separation performance of the obtained column under HILIC mode and the column efficiency was determined with cytidine as the test solute, reaching 80,000plates/m. Then, the retention behavior was evaluated by investigating the effect of various chromatographic factors on retention of different types of solutes, and the results revealed that the developed surface-confined glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase exhibited a hydrophilic interaction/anion-exchange mixed-mode retention mechanism. Finally, two mixtures of nucleotides and flavonoids were separated on the glucaminium-based ionic liquid column, respectively under hydrophilic interaction and hydrophilic interaction/anion-exchange mixed-mode chromatography. In conclusion, the multimodal retention capabilities of the glucaminium-based ionic liquid column could offer a wider range of retention behavior and flexible selectivity toward polar and hydrophilic compounds.

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