Scorzonera L. species (Asteraceae) are edible and as medicinal plants are used for various purposed in folk medicine. The methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots from 27 Scorzonera taxa were investigated for their possible neurobiological effects. Inhibitory potential of the Scorzonera species was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) at 100 µg mL(-1) using ELISA microtiter assay. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested with radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, ferric- (FRAP), and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, and scorzotomentosin-4-O-β-glucoside were also screened in the same manner. Total phenol and flavonoid quantification in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The aerial parts of Scorzonera pisidica (40.25 ± 0.74%) and chlorogenic acid (46.97 ± 0.82%) displayed the highest TYRO inhibition, while the remaining samples showed only trivial inhibition against cholinesterases (2.08 ± 1.35%-25.32 ± 1.37%). The same extract of S. pisidica was revealed to be the most potent in scavenging of all three radicals and FRAP assay. Out of 27 taxa, S. pisidica, in particular, may deserve further investigation for its neuroprotective potential.