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Cloud point sample clean-up and capillary zone electrophoresis with field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking for the analysis of herbicides in milk.

Journal of chromatography. A (2014-06-09)
Chunyapuk Kukusamude, Supalax Srijaranai, Masaru Kato, Joselito P Quirino
ABSTRACT

Sample clean-up by cloud point phase separation and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with stacking was developed for quaternary ammonium herbicides (i.e., paraquat and diquat) in milk. For sample clean-up, a mixture of 845μL of milk sample, 5μL of 100mM phosphoric acid, and 150μL of Triton X-114 was heated (60°C for 2min) and centrifugated (3000rpm for 2min) in 2-mL Eppendorf tube. The upper phase was directly analysed by capillary electrophoresis via electrokinetic injection at 10kV for 150s. The separation electrolyte was 100mM phosphate buffer with 20% acetonitrile at pH 2.5. Before sample injection, a micellar solution (10mM SDS in 80mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5) and an organic solvent rich solution (30% ACN) was hydrodynamically introduced into the capillary. These solutions provided the necessary conditions for stacking the cationic herbicides via the combination of field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking. The LODs (S/N=3) obtained from the entire strategy for paraquat and diquat in milk was 0.004 and 0.018μg/mL, respectively. This is 1.5 to >2 orders of magnitude better than the corresponding LODs obtained from the electrophoretic analysis of herbicide standards prepared in the separation electrolyte. The strategy was also successfully applied to 5 milk samples available in the market.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
IGEPAL® CA-630, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
IGEPAL® CA-630, viscous liquid
Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-114, laboratory grade
Supelco
IGEPAL® CA-630
Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-405 solution, 70% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-114
Sigma-Aldrich
IGEPAL® CA-720, average Mn ~735
Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-165 solution