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Chronic ethanol exposure during development: disturbances of breathing and adaptation.

Respiratory physiology & neurobiology (2013-07-03)
C J Dubois, M Kervern, M Naassila, O Pierrefiche
ABSTRACT

The effects of prenatal exposure to some drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, on breathing function have been clearly established. However, the case of alcohol (ethanol), the most widely consume drug of abuse, remains unknown. Prenatal ethanol consumption in humans may lead to fetal alcohol syndrome and although the effect of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) on cognitive function is frequently studied, nothing is known about CPEE's effects on breathing as compared with other drugs of abuse. The role of nicotine for example, in human neonatal pathology, such as sudden infant death syndrome, is acknowledged today, whereas the full scope of CPEE's role is only recently emerging. Here, we review preclinical investigations on the effects of CPEE on breathing in different animal models, including possible mechanisms of adaptation to CPEE. These recent preclinical studies shed new light on a widely used drug of abuse and should facilitate the understanding of the danger posed by alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Ethanol standards 10% (v/v), 10 % (v/v) in H2O, analytical standard
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Ethanol Fixative 80% v/v, suitable for fixing solution (blood films)
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Reagent Alcohol, reagent grade
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Reagent Alcohol, anhydrous, ≤0.003% water
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Reagent Alcohol, anhydrous, ≤0.005% water
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Dehydrated Alcohol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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Ethanol-20 (10 ampules/kit), 20 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Ethanol-400 (10 ampules/kit), 400 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-25, 25 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-500, 500 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Ethanol Calibration Kit, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
USP
Dehydrated Alcohol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
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Reagent Alcohol, suitable for HPLC
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Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
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Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, meets USP testing specifications
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Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, anhydrous, ≥99.5%
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Ethyl alcohol, denatured, reagent grade
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Ethanol-10, 10 mg/dL in H2O, pack of 10 × 1.2 mL ampules, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-200 (5 ampules/kit), 200 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-150, 150 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-20 (5 ampules/kit), 20 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-80, 80 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-40, 40 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-100 (5 ampules/kit), 100 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol, ACS reagent, prima fine spirit, without additive, F15 o1
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Ethanol-300, 300 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-80, 80 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-100 (10 ampules/kit), 100 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
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Ethanol-200 (10 ampules/kit), 200 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 10 × 1.2 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®