A two-day technical workshop was convened November 10-11, 1986, to discuss analytical approaches for determining trace amounts of cotinine in human body fluids resulting from passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The workshop, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Centers for Disease Control, was attended by scientists with expertise in cotinine analytical methodology and/or conduct of human monitoring studies related to ETS. The workshop format included technical presentations, separate panel discussions on chromatography and immunoassay analytical approaches, and group discussions related to the quality assurance/quality control aspects of future monitoring programs. This report presents a consensus of opinion on general issues before the workshop panel participants and also a detailed comparison of several analytical approaches being used by the various represented laboratories. The salient features of the chromatography and immunoassay analytical methods are discussed separately.