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Sensitivity analysis of source regions to PM2.5 concentration at Fukue Island, Japan.

Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) (2014-05-23)
Kohei Ikeda, Kazuyo Yamaji, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Xiaole Pan, Yuichi Komazaki, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Toshimasa Ohara
ABSTRACT

The authors analyze the sensitivities of source regions in East Asia to PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < or = 2.5 microm) concentration at Fukue Island located in the western part of Japan by using a regional chemical transport model with emission sensitivity simulations for the year 2010. The temporal variations in PM2.5 concentration are generally reproduced, but the absolute concentration is underestimated by the model. Chemical composition of PM2.5 in the model is compared with filter sampling data in spring; simulated sulfate, ammonium, and elemental carbon are consistent with observations, but mass concentration of particulate organic matters is underestimated. The relative contribution from each source region shows the seasonal variation, especially in summer. The contribution from central north China (105 degrees E-124 degrees E, 34 degrees N-42 degrees N) accounts for 50-60% of PM2.5 at Fukue Island except in summer; it significantly decreases in summer (18%). Central south China (105 degrees E-123 degrees E, 26 degrees N-34 degrees N) has the relative contribution of 15-30%. The contribution from the Korean Peninsula is estimated at about 10% except in summer. The domestic contribution accounts for about 7% in spring and autumn and increases to 19% in summer. We also estimate the relative contribution to daily average concentration in high PM2.5 days (> 35 microg m(-3)). Central north China has a significant contribution of 60-70% except in summer. The relative contribution from central south China is estimated at 46% in summer and about 30% in the other seasons. The contributions from central north and south China on high PM2.5 days are generally larger than those of their seasonal mean contributions. The domestic contribution is smaller than the seasonal mean value in every season; it is less than 10% even in summer. These model results suggest that foreign anthropogenic sources have a substantial impact on attainment of the atmospheric environmental standard of Japan at Fukue Island. The contribution from several source regions in East Asia to PM2.5 concentration at Fukue Island, a remote island located in the western part of Japan and close to the Asian continent, is estimated using a three-dimensional chemical transport model. The model results suggest that PM2.5 that is attributed to foreign anthropogenic sources have a larger contribution than that of domestic pollution and have a substantial impact on attainment of the atmospheric environmental standard of Japan at Fukue Island.

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Carbon - Vitreous, rod, 200mm, diameter 5.0mm, glassy carbon
Carbon - Vitreous, rod, 100mm, diameter 3.0mm, glassy carbon
Carbon - Vitreous, rod, 5mm, diameter 3.0mm, glassy carbon
Carbon - Vitreous, tube, 100mm, outside diameter 10mm, inside diameter 3mm, wall thickness 3.5mm, glassy carbon
Carbon - Vitreous, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, glassy carbon
Carbon - Vitreous, foam, 300x300mm, thickness 30mm, bulk density 0.05g/cm3, porosity 96.5%
Carbon - Vitreous, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 4.0mm, glassy carbon
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Carbon, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.2mm, flexible graphite, 99.8%
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Carbon - Vitreous, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.2mm, glassy carbon
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Carbon - Vitreous, rod, 200mm, diameter 3.0mm, glassy carbon
Carbon - Vitreous, rod, 200mm, diameter 7.0mm, glassy carbon
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Carbon, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 2.5mm, rigid graphite, fine grain size, 99.95%
Carbon - Vitreous, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 3.2mm, bulk density 0.05g/cm3, porosity 96.5%
Carbon - Vitreous, rod, 100mm, diameter 1.0mm, glassy carbon
Carbon, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.0mm, rigid graphite, fine grain size, 99.95%
Carbon, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.2mm, flexible graphite, 99.8%
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