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  • 4-Phenylbutyric acid suppresses inflammation through regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress of endothelial cells stimulated by uremic serum.

4-Phenylbutyric acid suppresses inflammation through regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress of endothelial cells stimulated by uremic serum.

Life sciences (2014-03-22)
Wei Zeng, Yan-Hong Guo, Wei Qi, Ji-Gang Chen, Li-Ling Yang, Zhi-Feng Luo, Jiao Mu, Bing Feng
ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and monocyte migration to the subendothelium are considered to be essential manifestations of AS. We conducted this study to determine whether ER stress was involved in uremic serum-induced EC dysfunction and whether the regulation of ER stress using a chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) had a preventative effect. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were divided into 4 groups: a control serum group (C.S), a uremic serum group (U.S), a uremic serum plus 4-PBA (5mM) treatment group (4-PBA), and a uremic serum plus pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC:50 μM) treatment group (PDTC). Lower concentrations of uremic serum (<10%) facilitated the proliferation of HUVECs. In contrast, the proliferative capability of HUVECs was gradually decreased when we continuously increased the concentration of uremic serum. Compared with C.S, HUVEC incubation with uremic serum had high expression levels of GRP78, p-PERK, NF-κB, MCP-1, and VEGF. THP-1 migration was markedly higher than C.S over the indicated time. These alterations were inhibited by the administration of 4-PBA. These findings suggest that regulation of ER stress coupled with inflammatory activation by 4-PBA would be a promising therapy to reverse the process and development of uremic serum-induced EC dysfunction.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sodium phenylbutyrate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Phenylbutyric acid, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phenylbutyrate, ≥98% (HPLC)