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  • Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis.

Phase I and II cannabinoid disposition in blood and plasma of occasional and frequent smokers following controlled smoked cannabis.

Clinical chemistry (2014-02-25)
Nathalie A Desrosiers, Sarah K Himes, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marta Concheiro-Guisan, David A Gorelick, Marilyn A Huestis
ABSTRACT

Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) have been reported in blood from frequent cannabis smokers for an extended time during abstinence. We compared THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC-glucuronide (THCCOO-glucuronide) blood and plasma disposition in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. Frequent and occasional smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. Blood and plasma cannabinoids were quantified on admission (approximately 19 h before), 1 h before, and up to 15 times (0.5-30 h) after smoking. Cannabinoid blood and plasma concentrations were significantly higher in frequent smokers compared with occasional smokers at most time points for THC and 11-OH-THC and at all time points for THCCOOH and THCCOO-glucuronide. Cannabidiol, cannabinol, and THC-glucuronide were not significantly different at any time point. Overall blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were significantly higher in frequent smokers for THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, and THCCOO-glucuronide, with and without accounting for baseline concentrations. For blood THC >5 μg/L, median (range) time of last detection was 3.5 h (1.1->30 h) in frequent smokers and 1.0 h (0-2.1 h) in 11 occasional smokers; 2 individuals had no samples with THC >5 μg/L. Cannabis smoking history plays a major role in cannabinoid detection. These differences may impact clinical and impaired driving drug detection. The presence of cannabidiol, cannabinol, or THC-glucuronide indicates recent use, but their absence does not exclude it.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
(±)-Δ9-THC solution, 100 μg/mL in heptane, ampule of 1 mL, Cerilliant®
Supelco
(±)-11-Hydroxy-Δ9-THC solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
(±)-11-Hydroxy-Δ9-THC solution, 100 μg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
(−)-11-nor-9-Carboxy-Δ9-THC solution, 100 μg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
(−)-11-nor-9-Carboxy-Δ9-THC solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®