Proteasome inhibitors used in the treatment of hematologic cancers also reduce thrombosis. Whether the proteasome participates in platelet activation or function is unclear because little is known of the proteasome in these terminally differentiated cells. Platelets displayed all 3 primary proteasome protease activities, which MG132 and bortezomib (Velcade) inhibited. Proteasome substrates are marked by ubiquitin, and platelets contained a functional ubiquitination system that modified the proteome by monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Systemic MG132 strongly suppressed the formation of occlusive, platelet-rich thrombi in FeCl3-damaged carotid arteries. Transfusion of platelets treated ex vivo with MG132 and washed before transfusion into thrombocytopenic mice also reduced carotid artery thrombosis. Proteasome inhibition reduced platelet aggregation by low thrombin concentrations and ristocetin-stimulated agglutination through the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex. This receptor was not appropriately internalized after proteasome inhibition in stimulated platelets, and spreading and clot retraction after MG132 exposure also were decreased. The effects of proteasome inhibitors were not confined to a single receptor as MG132 suppressed thrombin-stimulated, ADP-stimulated, and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microparticle shedding. Proteasome inhibition increased ubiquitin decoration of cytoplasmic proteins, including the cytoskeletal proteins Filamin A and Talin-1. Mass spectrometry revealed a single MG132-sensitive tryptic cleavage after R1745 in an extended Filamin A loop, which would separate its actin-binding domain from its carboxy terminal glycoprotein Ibα-binding domain. Platelets contain a ubiquitin/proteasome system that marks cytoskeletal proteins for proteolytic modification to promote productive platelet-platelet and platelet-wall interactions.