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Role of sirtuins in lifespan regulation is linked to methylation of nicotinamide.

Nature chemical biology (2013-10-01)
Kathrin Schmeisser, Johannes Mansfeld, Doreen Kuhlow, Sandra Weimer, Steffen Priebe, Ines Heiland, Marc Birringer, Marco Groth, Alexandra Segref, Yariv Kanfi, Nathan L Price, Sebastian Schmeisser, Stefan Schuster, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Reinhard Guthke, Matthias Platzer, Thorsten Hoppe, Haim Y Cohen, Kim Zarse, David A Sinclair, Michael Ristow
ABSTRACT

Sirtuins, a family of histone deacetylases, have a fiercely debated role in regulating lifespan. In contrast with recent observations, here we find that overexpression of sir-2.1, the ortholog of mammalian SirT1, does extend Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Sirtuins mandatorily convert NAD(+) into nicotinamide (NAM). We here find that NAM and its metabolite, 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA), extend C. elegans lifespan, even in the absence of sir-2.1. We identify a previously unknown C. elegans nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase, encoded by a gene now named anmt-1, to generate MNA from NAM. Disruption and overexpression of anmt-1 have opposing effects on lifespan independent of sirtuins, with loss of anmt-1 fully inhibiting sir-2.1-mediated lifespan extension. MNA serves as a substrate for a newly identified aldehyde oxidase, GAD-3, to generate hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a mitohormetic reactive oxygen species signal to promote C. elegans longevity. Taken together, sirtuin-mediated lifespan extension depends on methylation of NAM, providing an unexpected mechanistic role for sirtuins beyond histone deacetylation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Nicotinamide (Niacinamide), analytical standard
Supelco
Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3) solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Supelco
Niacinamide, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Nicotinamide, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Nicotinamide, ≥98% (HPLC), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Niacinamide, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Nicotinamide, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Nicotinamide, ≥99.5% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Nicotinamide, ≥98.5% (HPLC)