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Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

Food chemistry (2013-09-05)
Yaqiong Zhang, Yuge Niu, Yangchao Luo, Mei Ge, Tian Yang, Liangli Lucy Yu, Qin Wang
ABSTRACT

Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Chitosan, high molecular weight
Sigma-Aldrich
Chitosan, from shrimp shells, practical grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Chitosan, low molecular weight
Sigma-Aldrich
Chitosan, medium molecular weight
Sigma-Aldrich
Zein
Sigma-Aldrich
Chitosan, from shrimp shells, ≥75% (deacetylated)
Thymol, primary reference standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Thymol, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF, 99-101%
Supelco
Thymol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Thymol, ≥98.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chitosan from shrimp shells, low-viscous
Supelco
Thymol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Thymol, FCC, FG
Thymol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard