MilliporeSigma

Effects of passive smoking on snoring in preschool children.

The Journal of pediatrics (2013-07-03)
Yin Zhu, Chun Ting Au, Ting Fan Leung, Yun Kwok Wing, Christopher Wai Kei Lam, Albert Martin Li
ABSTRACT

To examine the association between passive smoking and snoring in preschool children using parent-reported questionnaires and urine cotinine levels. This was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 2954 children aged 2-6 years in Hong Kong. Parent-reported questionnaires provided information on snoring and household smoking. One-third of children randomly chosen from the cohort provided urine samples for cotinine analysis. Increased urine cotinine was defined as urinary cotinine concentration ≥ 30 ng/mg creatinine. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we analyzed the association between snoring and passive smoking, controlling for potential confounders including age, sex, body mass index z-score, atopic diseases, recent upper respiratory tract infection, parental allergy, parental education, family income, and bedroom-sharing. A total of 2187 completed questionnaires were included in the final analysis, and 724 children provided urine samples for cotinine measurement. After adjustment for confounding factors, questionnaire-based household smoking (>10 cigarettes/d: OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.02-4.81) and increased urine cotinine (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.13-16.95) were significant risk factors for habitual snoring (snoring ≥ 3 nights per week). For occasional snoring (snoring 1-2 nights per week), reported household smoking (1-10 cigarettes/d: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.14-1.76; >10 cigarettes/d: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.31), and increased urine cotinine (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.03-3.20) were also identified as significant risk factors. A dose-effect relationship was found for snoring frequency and adjusted natural logarithms of urinary cotinine concentrations (P < .001). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an independent risk factor for snoring in preschool children. Parents' smoking cessation should be encouraged in management of childhood snoring.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
(−)-Cotinine, ≥98%
Supelco
(−)-Cotinine solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®