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  • Syringic acid from Tamarix aucheriana possesses antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities in human colorectal cancer cells.

Syringic acid from Tamarix aucheriana possesses antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities in human colorectal cancer cells.

Pharmaceutical biology (2013-06-12)
Mohamed-Salah Abaza, Raja'a Al-Attiyah, Radhika Bhardwaj, Ghaneim Abbadi, Mathew Koyippally, Mohammad Afzal
ABSTRACT

For its variety of biological activities, Tamarix aucheriana (Decne.) Baum. (Tamaricaceae) has an extensive history as a traditional Arab medicine. Antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities of syringic acid (SA) were studied against human colorectal cancer. Chromatographic and spectral data were used for the isolation and identification of SA. MTT, flow cytometry, in vitro invasion and angiogenesis assays, fluoremetry, ELISA and Real Time qPCR were used to test antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities of SA, cell cycle, apoptosis, proteasome and NFκB-DNA-binding activities, cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis, and expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-related genes. SA showed a time- and dose-dependent (IC₅₀ = 0.95-1.2 mg mL⁻¹) antimitogenic effect against cancer cells with little cytotoxicity on normal fibroblasts (≤20%). SA-altered cell cycle (S/G2-M or G1/G2-M phases) in a time-dependent manner, induced apoptosis, inhibited DNA-binding activity of NFκB (p ≤ 0.0001), chymotrypsin-like/PGPH (peptidyl-glutamyl peptide-hydrolyzing) (p ≤ 0.0001) and the trypsin-like (p ≤ 0.002) activities of 26S proteasome and angiogenesis. SA also differentially sensitized cancer cells to standard chemotherapies with a marked increase in their sensitivity to camptothecin (500-fold), 5FU (20,000-fold), doxorubicin (210-fold), taxol (3134-fold), vinblastine (1000-fold), vincristine (130-fold) and amsacrine (107-fold) compared to standard drugs alone. SA exerted its chemotherapeutic and chemo-sensitizing effects through an array of mechanisms including cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, inhibition of cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis, NFκB DNA-binding and proteasome activities. These results demonstrate the potential of SA as an antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing agent for human colorectal cancer.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
QCM ECMatrix Cell Invasion Assay, 24-well (8 µm), colorimetric, The CHEMICON Cell Invasion Assay Kit uses a 24-well plate, with 8 um pores, which provides an efficient system for evaluating the invasion of tumor cells through a basement membrane model.
Sigma-Aldrich
Gallic acid, 97.5-102.5% (titration)
Supelco
Gallic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Sigma-Aldrich
Syringic acid, ≥95% (HPLC)