As the production and applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) increase, it is essential to characterize fate and effects in environmental systems. Nanosilver materials may settle from suspension; therefore, the authors' objective was to utilize environmentally relevant bioassays and study the impact, bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, uptake, and depuration of AgNPs on a sediment-dwelling invertebrate, Lumbriculus variegatus. Hydrodynamic diameters of uncoated 30-nm, 80-nm, and 1500-nm AgNP powders and a polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) AgNP suspension were measured utilizing dynamic light scattering in freshwater media (0-280 µS/cm). Aggregation for 30 nm, 80 nm, and 1500 nm silver increased with conductivity but was minimal for PVP silver. Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) spiked into sediment (nominally 100 mg/kg) and water (PVP 30 nm and 70 nm Ag, nominally 5 mg/L). Uptake was assessed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and hyperspectral imaging. Particle sizes were examined through field flow fractionation-ICP-MS (FFF-ICP-MS) and ICP-MS in single particle mode (SP-ICP-MS). Lumbriculus variegatus were also depurated for 6 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h to determine gut clearance. Bioaccumulation factors of sediment-exposed L. variegatus were similar regardless of particle size or coatings. The FFF-ICP-MS and SP-ICP-MS detected AgNPs for up to 48 h post depuration. The present study provides information on bioaccumulation and interactions of AgNPs within biological systems.