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Characterization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading fungi in Vietnamese soils.

FEMS microbiology ecology (2012-11-22)
Kazuhito Itoh, Masahiro Kinoshita, Shigeyuki Morishita, Masateru Chida, Kousuke Suyama
ABSTRACT

Sixty-nine fungal strains were isolated countrywide from 10 Vietnamese soils, in areas both with and without a history of exposure to Agent Orange, and their degrading activities on the phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), as well as related compounds, were examined. Among taxonomically various fungi, 45, 12 and 4% of the isolates degraded phenoxyacetic acid (PA), 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, respectively. While the PA-degrading fungi were distributed to all sites and among many genera, the 2,4-D-degraders were found only in order Eurotiales in class Eurotiomycetes. All of the 2,4,5-T-degrading fungal strains were phylogenetically close to Eupenicillium spp. and were isolated from southern Vietnam. As a degradation intermediate, the corresponding phenol compounds were detected in some strains. The degradation substrate spectrum for 26 compounds of Eupenicillium spp. strains including 2,4,5-T-degraders and -non-degraders seemed to be related to phylogenetic similarity and soil sampling location of the isolates. These results suggest that the heavily contaminated environments enhanced the adaptation of the phylogenetic group of Eupenicillium spp. toward to obtain the ability to degrade 2,4,5-T.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, ≥95%, crystalline
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenoxyacetic acid, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 97%
Supelco
Phenoxyacetic acid, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
2,4-D, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Supelco
2,4-D solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in acetonitrile
Supelco
2,4-D, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
2,4,5-T, PESTANAL®
Supelco
2,4-D, PESTANAL®, analytical standard