A sensitive and specific method for extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in human urine was developed and fully validated. To ensure complete hydrolysis of conjugates and capture of total analyte content, urine samples were hydrolyzed by two methods in series. Initial hydrolysis was with Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (Type IX-A) followed by a second hydrolysis utilizing 10N NaOH. Specimens were adjusted to pH 5-6.5, treated with acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and centrifuged, and the supernatants were subjected to solid-phase extraction. Extracted analytes were derivatized with BSTFA and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization. Standard curves were linear from 2.5 to 300 ng/mL. Extraction efficiencies were 57.0-59.3% for THC, 68.3-75.5% for 11-OH-THC, and 71.5-79.7% for THCCOOH. Intra- and interassay precision across the linear range of the assay ranged from 0.1 to 4.3% and 2.6 to 7.4%, respectively. Accuracy was within 15% of target concentrations. This method was applied to the analysis of urine specimens collected from individuals participating in controlled administration cannabis studies, and it may be a useful analytical procedure for determining recency of cannabis use in forensic toxicology applications.