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Endocrine effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation in weaned and adult male offspring.

The Journal of endocrinology (2013-04-23)
A P Santos-Silva, E Oliveira, C R Pinheiro, A C Santana, C C Nascimento-Saba, Y Abreu-Villaça, E G Moura, P C Lisboa
ABSTRACT

Children from pregnant smokers show more susceptibility to develop obesity in adult life. Previously, we failed to demonstrate a program for obesity in rat offspring only when the mothers were exposed to tobacco smoke during lactation. Here, we studied the short- and long-term effects of smoke exposure (SE) to both dams and their pups during lactation on endocrine and metabolic parameters. For this, we designed an experimental model where nursing rats and their pups were divided into two groups: SE group, exposed to smoke in a cigarette smoking machine (four times/day, from the third to the 21st day of lactation), and group, exposed to filtered air. Pups were killed at 21 and 180 days. At weaning, SE pups showed lower body weight (7%), length (5%), retroperitoneal fat mass (59%), visceral adipocyte area (60%), and higher subcutaneous adipocyte area (95%) with hypoinsulinemia (-29%), hyperthyroxinemia (59%), hypercorticosteronemia (60%), and higher adrenal catecholamine content (+58%). In adulthood, SE offspring showed higher food intake (+10%), body total fat mass (+50%), visceral fat mass (retroperitoneal: 55%; mesenteric: 67%; and epididymal: 55%), and lower subcutaneous adipocyte area (24%) with higher serum glucose (11%), leptin (85%), adiponectin (1.4-fold increase), total triiodothyronine (71%), free thyroxine (57%), TSH (36%), triglycerides (65%), VLDL cholesterol (+66%), and HDL cholesterol (91%) levels and lower corticosteronemia (41%) and adrenal catecholamine content (57%). Our present findings suggest that tobacco SE to both dams and their pups during lactation causes malnutrition in early life that programs for obesity and hormonal and metabolic disturbances in adulthood, only if the pups are submitted to the same smoke environment as the mother.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
(−)-Cotinine solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Sigma-Aldrich
(−)-Cotinine, ≥98%