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Phase and size controllable synthesis of NaYbF4 nanocrystals in oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system for targeted fluorescent imaging of gastric cancer.

Theranostics (2013-03-09)
Liyuan Pan, Meng He, Jiebing Ma, Wei Tang, Guo Gao, Rong He, Haichuan Su, Daxiang Cui
ABSTRACT

Upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals own great potential in applications such as biomolecule-labeling, in vivo tracking and molecular imaging. Herein we reported that NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals were controllably synthesized by oleic acid (OA)/ ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for targeted fluorescent imaging of gastric cancer in vivo. The optimal synthesis condition of NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals by OA/IL two-phase system was established, adding more metal ion such as Na(+) ion could facilitate the size control and crystal-phase transition, more importantly, markedly enhancing fluorescent intensity of beta-phase nanocrystals compared with traditional methods. Alpha-phase NaYbF4, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with less than 10nm in diameter and beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with 30 nm or so in diameter and strong fluorescent signals were obtained, these synthesized nanocrystals exhibited very low cytotoxicity. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals were prepared, could actively target gastric cancer tissues implanted into nude mice in vivo, and realized targeted fluorescent imaging. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals show great potential in applications such as targeted near infared radiation fluorescent imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and targeted therapy of gastric cancer in the near future.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, natural, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, technical grade, 90%
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Oleic acid, meets analytical specification of Ph, Eur., 65.0-88.0% (GC)
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Ytterbium(III) fluoride, anhydrous, powder, 99.98% trace metals basis
Supelco
Oleic acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, ≥99% (GC)
Supelco
Oleic acid, Selectophore, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, suitable for cell culture, BioReagent
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Ytterbium, chunks, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Ytterbium, powder, ≥99.9% trace rare earth metals basis
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Ytterbium, chips, 99.9% trace rare earth metals basis
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Ytterbium, ingot, 99.9% trace rare earth metals basis