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Species selective preconcentration and quantification of gold nanoparticles using cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

Analytica chimica acta (2013-01-15)
Georg Hartmann, Michael Schuster
ABSTRACT

The determination of metallic nanoparticles in environmental samples requires sample pretreatment that ideally combines pre-concentration and species selectivity. With cloud point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton X-114 we present a simple and cost effective separation technique that meets both criteria. Effective separation of ionic gold species and Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency for Au-NP ranged from 1.01 ± 0.06 (particle size 2 nm) to 0.52 ± 0.16 (particle size 150 nm). An enrichment factor of 80 and a low limit of detection of 5 ng L(-1) is achieved using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) for quantification. TEM measurements showed that the particle size is not affected by the CPE process. Natural organic matter (NOM) is tolerated up to a concentration of 10 mg L(-1). The precision of the method expressed as the standard deviation of 12 replicates at an Au-NP concentration of 100 ng L(-1) is 9.5%. A relation between particle concentration and the extraction efficiency was not observed. Spiking experiments showed a recovery higher than 91% for environmental water samples.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium thiosulfate, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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Triton X-405 solution, 70% in H2O
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Sodium thiosulfate, ReagentPlus®, 99%
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Sodium thiosulfate, purum p.a., anhydrous, ≥98.0% (RT)
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Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
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Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5%
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Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP
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Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, 99.999% trace metals basis
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IGEPAL® CA-720, average Mn ~735
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Triton X-114
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IGEPAL® CA-630, viscous liquid
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IGEPAL® CA-630, for molecular biology
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Triton X-165 solution
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Triton X-114, laboratory grade
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Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, BioXtra, ≥99.5%
Supelco
IGEPAL® CA-630