Bupleurum chinense DC had hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effect in traditional Chinese medicine. This study was to determine whether the crude polysaccharides isolated from the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC (BCPs) attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice. Mice were challenged with LPS intratracheally 2h before BCPs (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) administration. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 24h after LPS challenge. Treatment with BCPs reduced lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. The elevated number of total cells and protein concentration in BALF was reduced. The increased level of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BALF, and serum nitric oxide (NO) were also inhibited. BCPs significantly attenuated lung injury with improved lung morphology and reduced complement deposition. These results suggested that the effect of BCPs against ALI might be related with its inhibitory effect on excessive activation of complement and on the production of proinflammatory mediators.