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  • Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2010-06-12)
Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Dag Altin, Andy Booth, Siv-Hege Vang, Max Frenzel, Kristin Rist Sørheim, Odd Gunnar Brakstad, Trond R Størseth
ABSTRACT

Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO(2) from natural gas and for CO(2) capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC(50) concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Diethanolamine, ACS reagent, ≥98.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethanolamine, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.0% (GC)
Supelco
Diethanolamine, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethanolamine, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Supelco
Diethanolamine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethanolamine, reagent grade, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethanolamine hydrochloride, 98%