Several biomarkers are routinely used clinically for predicting preterm labor; however, these factors are either nonspecific or detected too late. Here, we performed protein profiles in preterm- and term-derived human umbilical cord by using 2DE. Approximately 200 different proteins were identified between preterm- and term-delivered umbilical cords. Among them, 48 proteins were identified. A comparison of preterm proteome to that of term proteome revealed potential candidates for biomarkers, such as hypoxia-inducible proteins, phosphorylated heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27), transgelin, vimentin, and transferrin that are specific to preterm umbilical cords. Especially, HSP27 in preterm-derived umbilical cords shows a significant increase in the mono- and tetra-phosphorylation. The real importance of all of HSP27 phosphorylation as well as hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase require further validation in vitro and in vivo; nevertheless, we believe that they could represent promising diagnostic targets for detection of sudden early delivery. In conclusion, the results of the current study may provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying umbilical cord development.