This study provides an integrative description of candidate gene expression across tissues involved in calcium (Ca) metabolism during the egg laying cycle, using the well-defined model of Ca supply as fine or coarse particles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Plasma and tissue samples were collected from hens at the peak of laying at 0 to 1, 9 to 10, and 18 to 19 h postovulation (PO). After mRNA preparation from the parathyroid gland, medullary bone, liver, kidney, duodenum, and jejunum, gene expressions were quantified using RT-qPCR. The highest levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA in the parathyroid gland (P < 0.05), and of the active form of vitamin D3 1.25(OH)2D3 in the plasma (P < 0.01) were observed at 18 to 19 h PO. During this active phase of eggshell formation, bone resorption was attested to high levels of plasma inorganic phosphorus (iP) and the receptor activation of nuclear factor-κB expression in the bone (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). At this stage, 5 genes of the transcellular and the paracellular Ca absorption pathways in the intestine (P < 0.05) and the Ca channel transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (P < 0.05), involved in its reabsorption in the kidney, were overexpressed. At 0 to 1 h PO during the subsequent daylight period, 2 candidates of the transcellular and the paracellular Ca pathways (P < 0.05) remained at high levels in the intestine, while calbindin D 28K expression was the highest in the kidney (P < 0.05). As PTH mRNA and 1.25(OH)2D3 were low, bone accretion was likely active at this stage. The phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) was overexpressed at 18 to 19 h PO (P < 0.05) in the bone when plasma iP was high, which suggested a role in the subsequent reduction of P reabsorption in the kidney, as attested to the decreased expression of P cotransporters, leading to iP clearance from the plasma at 0 to 1 h PO (P < 0.05). The low levels of 1.25(OH)2D3 at this stage coincided with increased expression of the 24-hydroxylase gene in the kidney (P < 0.05). In hens fed fine particles of CaCO3, higher plasma levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and higher expression of several genes involved in bone turnover reflected a stronger challenge to Ca homeostasis. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that FGF23 could drive vitamin D metabolism in the laying hen, as previously documented in other species and explain the tight link between P and Ca metabolisms.