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Effects on the Caco-2 Cells of a Hypoglycemic Protein from Lupin Seeds in a Solution and Adsorbed on Polystyrene Nanoparticles to Mimic a Complex Food Matrix.

Biomolecules (2019-10-17)
Alberto Barbiroli, Jessica Capraro, Serena Marulo, Marta Gamba, Alessio Scarafoni
ABSTRACT

The search for bioactivities influencing the human wellbeing of food proteins and peptides is a topic of broad and current interest. γ-Conglutin (γC) is a lupin seed protein drawing remarkable pharmacological and/or nutraceutical interest, as it is able to reduce hyperglycemia in humans and animal models. The present work deepens our investigations to understand the molecular basis of the in vitro effects of γC by testing the possible metabolic effects on cultivated Caco-2 cells. γC and its derived peptides (obtained via simulated gastrointestinal digestion) did not influence the cell viability at incubation times up to 24 h. The incubation of cells with native or digested γC caused no detectable inflammation processes mediated by Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB). We checked if treatment with γC or its derived peptides can elicit the expression of two peptide transporters (Pept-1 and Htp-1) by using an RT-qPCR approach. Native γC caused the halving of Pept-1 expression compared to untreated cells, but this effect disappeared when γC was digested. Either native γC or γC peptides reduced the expression levels of Hpt-1. Finally, this work also sheds light on the possible structural modifications of γC that may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, using an in vitro simulated dispersed system with polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs).

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, lyophilized powder, ≥2,500 units/mg protein (E1%/280)
Sigma-Aldrich
Cell Growth Determination Kit, MTT based
Sigma-Aldrich
Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, for use with mammalian cell and tissue extracts, DMSO solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Trypsin-EDTA solution, 1 ×, sterile; sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, 0.5 g porcine trypsin and 0.2 g EDTA • 4Na per liter of Hanks′ Balanced Salt Solution with phenol red
Sigma-Aldrich
Trypan Blue solution, 0.4%, for microscopy