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The spatial-temporal working pattern of cold ultrasound treatment in improving the sensory, nutritional and safe quality of unpasteurized raw tomato juice.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry (2019-05-19)
Ruiping Gao, Fayin Ye, Yulin Wang, Zhiqiang Lu, Maoyi Yuan, Guohua Zhao
ABSTRACT

In considering the adverse nutritional and flavor consequences of thermal pasteurization on fruit juices, freshly squeezed and unpasteurized fruit juices, commonly called raw juices, are of increasing demand as they are served in bars, restaurants and at home. Apparently, due to lack of controlled processing regime as did in a juice factory, the raw juice often undergoes a rapid phase separation and is at the risk of microbial unsafety. To this end, an attempt of cold ultrasound treatment (CUT, 87.52 W/cm2, 10 °C) was implemented to a raw tomato juice up to 30 min. Appreciatively, the physical stability, nutritional value and microbial safety substantially improved. On a CUT time scale, cloud stability and total phenolic content continuously increased; the total plate count was adversely altered; the rheological parameters (viscosity, thixotropy and shear-thinning tendency) and total carotenoids obtained shared a parabolic changing pattern but peaked at 15 min and 10 min, respectively. Finally, the ascorbic acid sharply increased at an earlier stage (5 min), and then remained stable throughout the whole process. Notably, the occurrences of these improvements are of spatial-temporal nature and resulted from different cavitation induced stress fields. At the initial stage, CUT chiefly worked via the mechanical field with the particles in pulp phase, making them smaller and releasing the soluble materials into serum phase. When the particles larger than approximately of 160 μm were completely disintegrated, the CUT entered its second stage and mainly functioned in the serum phase via both mechanical and chemical fields. As a result, the serum pectin and carotenoids were depolymerized and degraded, respectively. The present results are valuable in uncovering the mechanism and kinetics underlying the ultrasound treatment of fruit juices and the present CUT is highly recommended due to its high maneuverability and excellent performance.