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Enantioselective Phytotoxic Disturbances of Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis thaliana by Dichlorprop.

Environmental science & technology (2019-07-11)
Siyu Chen, Hui Chen, Zunwei Chen, Yuezhong Wen, Weiping Liu
ABSTRACT

Plant fatty acids have indispensable physiological functions and nutritional value. However, the overuse of herbicides may cause phytotoxic disturbances of fatty acids in nontarget plants while spraying for weeds. Evidence has shown that the herbicide dichlorprop can inhibit the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), a key enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis. However, the enantioselective phytotoxic effects of dichlorprop enantiomers ((R)-dichlorprop and (S)-dichlorprop) on fatty acids and their related mechanisms remain unclear. To solve this issue, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of dichlorprop in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) with a focus on fatty acids was evaluated for the first time. The results indicated a significant difference in enantioselectivity and that exposure to (R)-dichlorprop can cause marked fatty acid disturbances in nontarget plant species. Specifically, (R)-dichlorprop decreased the content of three fatty acids by more than 50% by inhibiting the activity of ACCase. In addition, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) contents and membrane permeability reflected herbicide-induced lipid peroxidation, which decreased the unsaturation of fatty acids in membranes and further influenced membrane composition and function. Moreover, an increased level of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) reflected a plant stress-induced response. To summarize, fatty acids represent a new perspective for evaluating the toxicity of chiral pesticides, contributing to a better understanding of the enantioselective phytotoxicity and mechanisms of dichlorprop, and providing evidence for herbicide security and risk assessments.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Supelco 37 Component FAME Mix, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, in dichloromethane (varied conc.), ampule of 1 mL
Sigma-Aldrich
Heptadecanoic acid, ≥98%