Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many consumer products due to their anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the effect of exposure to AgNPs should be investigated in diseased states in addition to healthy ones. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a major cytokine that is highly expressed in many diseased conditions, such as inflammatory diseases, sepsis, and cancer. We investigated the effects of two different sizes of AgNPs on the TNFα-induced DNA damage response. Cells were exposed to 10 and 200 nm AgNPs separately and the results showed that the 200 nm AgNPs had a lower cytotoxic effect with a higher percent of cellular uptake compared to the 10 nm AgNPs. Moreover, analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage indicated that TNFα-induced ROS-mediated DNA damage was reduced by 200 nm AgNPs, but not by 10 nm AgNPs. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) was localized on the cell surface after TNFα exposure with or without 10 nm AgNPs. In contrast, the expression of TNFR1 on the cell surface was reduced by the 200 nm AgNPs. These results suggested that exposure of cells to 200 nm AgNPs reduces the TNFα-induced DNA damage response via reducing the surface expression of TNFR1, thus reducing the signal transduction of TNFα.