The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a new component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and regulates renin activity. The objective of the present study was to test potential roles of the renal PRR and intrarenal RAAS in the physiological status of late pregnancy. Late pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were studied 19-21 days after sperm was observed in vaginal smears. Experiments were performed using age-matched virgin rats and late pregnant rats treated with the specific PRR inhibitor PRO20 (700 μg·kg-1·day-1 sc for 14 days, 3 times/day for every 8 h) or vehicle. The indices of RAAS, including PRR, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone levels, were examined by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, or ELISA. Further analyses of renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression, sodium-water retention, and plasma volume were performed. We first present evidence for the activation of intrarenal RAAS in late pregnant rats, including increases in urinary renin activity, active and total renin content, and prorenin content, angiotensin II and aldosterone excretion, in parallel with increased renal PRR expression and urinary soluble PRR excretion. Functional evidence demonstrated that PRR antagonism with PRO20 effectively suppressed the indices of intrarenal RAAS in late pregnant rats. In addition, our results revealed that renal α-ENaC expression, sodium-water retention, and plasma volume were elevated during late pregnancy, which were all attenuated by PRO20. In summary, the present study examined the renal mechanism of sodium-water retention and plasma volume expansion in late pregnant rats and identified a novel role of PRR in regulation of intrarenal RAAS and α-ENaC and thus sodium and fluid retention associated with pregnancy.