Triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of breast milk plays an important role in improving digestion, absorption, and metabolism when consumed by infants. This study characterized the TAG profile of human colostrum, transitional, and mature milk samples from 103 women. Significant differences in the TAGs composition of breast milk fat from three lactation stages were observed. The TAGs with high molecular weight and unsaturated fatty acid (such as 1,3-olein-2-palmitin (OPO) and 1(3)-olein-2-palmitin-3(1)-linolein (OPL)) were enriched in colostrum, while the TAGs containing medium-chain fatty acids were more abundant in transitional and mature milk than that in colostrum. Of note, OPL was the most common TAG in breast milk of Chinese women while the most common TAG in breast milk of Western women was OPO. This data will promote the development of infant formulas in terms of the TAG composition more suitable for infants.