Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and tRNAPyl have been extensively used for genetic-code expansion. A Methanosarcina mazei PylRS mutant bearing the Y306A and Y384F mutations (PylRS(Y306A/Y384F)) encodes various bulky non-natural lysine derivatives by UAG. In this study, we examined how PylRS(Y306A/Y384F) recognizes many amino acids. Among 17 non-natural lysine derivatives, Nɛ-(benzyloxycarbonyl)lysine (ZLys) and 10 ortho/meta/para-substituted ZLys derivatives were efficiently ligated to tRNAPyl and were incorporated into proteins by PylRS(Y306A/Y384F). We determined crystal structures of 14 non-natural lysine derivatives bound to the PylRS(Y306A/Y384F) catalytic fragment. The meta- and para-substituted ZLys derivatives are snugly accommodated in the productive mode. In contrast, ZLys and the unsubstituted or ortho-substituted ZLys derivatives exhibited an alternative binding mode in addition to the productive mode. PylRS(Y306A/Y384F) displayed a high aminoacylation rate for ZLys, indicating that the double-binding mode minimally affects aminoacylation. These precise substrate recognition mechanisms by PylRS(Y306A/Y384F) may facilitate the structure-based design of novel non-natural amino acids.