The significant consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) include sensory and motor disability resulting from the death of neuronal cells and axon degeneration. In this respect, overcoming the consequences of SCI including the recovery of sensory and motor functions is considered to be a difficult tasks that requires attention to multiple aspects of treatment. The breakthrough in tissue engineering through the integration of biomaterial scaffolds and stem cells has brought a new hope for the treatment of SCI. In the present study, human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) were cultured with human Schwann cells (hSC) in transwells, their differentiation into nerve-like cells was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry techniques. The differentiated cells (co-hEnSC) were then seeded on the poly ε-caprolactone (PCL)/gelatin scaffolds. The SEM images displayed the favorable seeding and survival of the cells on the scaffolds. The seeded scaffolds were then transplanted into hemisected SCI rats. The growth of neuronal cells was confirmed with immunohistochemical study using NF-H as a neuronal marker. Finally, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) test confirmed the recovery of sensory and motor functions. The results suggested that combination therapy using the differentiated hEnSC seeded on PCL/gelatin scaffolds has the potential to heal the injured spinal cord and to limit the secondary damage.